The decline of the academies is certainly not exaggerated. Today, aside from being saturated with Neo-Marxist diarrhoea and irksome nihilism, the world of academia has seen an ever-widening gulf appear between tutor and student. Since the 1960’s, universities across the Western world have become similar to pre-revolutionary France, with faculty acting like the pampered aristocrats of Versailles and the average student a lowly peasant, with instead of the yoke of eternal serfdom around his neck, the yoke of student debt.

Perhaps a better comparison would be with Communist Russia, the Politburo and the proletariat, let’s face it, most academics are Socialists, Maoists or some other kind of ideology. The way the academy has restructured itself over the past 40 to 50 years, coupled with increased university tuition fees, has created a seismic gap between those who attend a university with the hope of furthering their skills and obtaining a flourishing career at the end of it, and those who see a university as a giant cash cow.

The Not So Honourable System

University Building

Whereas the academies were once a place that valued classical education and thus attracted curious and intellectual minds, who understood the great works of the masters, like Plato, Aristotle et al, it now attracts the soulless careerist. Men and women who perpetuate flimsy ideologies, the red flag waving revolutionaries, unless it’s anything to do with their paymasters, then they’re the most well behaved little boys and girls.

As standards surrounding higher education have dropped so dramatically over the decades, we’ve seen the increase in Postmodernism, which is now the cast iron and unquestionable doctrine of every university across the Western world. In the words of Jordan Peterson, professor of psychology at Toronto University, Canada, Postmodernism is so popular because it makes stupid people feel intellectual, without having to do any of the hard work.

A House Built on Sand

University Graduate Black and White

One of the most egregious aspects of the modern university and one which is cheating gullible students out of a ton of money and an actual career is the teaching of pointless subjects. Another leftover from the baby boomers temper tantrum against their parents, subjects like gender studies, formerly women’s studies, have gained a prominent place at universities, proving the theory that we are becoming ever more an idiocracy.

Gender studies are Postmodernism in its purest form, a flimsy mish-mash of nonsensical drivel coupled with a victimhood mentality. Often taught by hairy, man-hating “professors” (and I use the word professors in the loosest possible term) who indoctrinate the blank canvas like minds of young girls in misandry and viewing femininity as a weapon conceived by the mythical “patriarchy”.

It is not just the rise of purposeless courses, but traditional subjects, specifically those in the arts and humanities, have become completely dismantled and reshaped to fit with Postmodernist teaching methods. Art history and English Literature, for example, are now so far removed from what they once were in the 1950’s and early 1960’s, they are now mere shells of their former selves.

Great works of literature by Shakespeare and Wordsworth and art by Michelangelo and Bernini are now observed through the prism of identity politics, the male gaze and so-called anti-racism. Everything is dismantled and taught to be patriarchal, sexist, homophobic and racist, so we have graduates being churned out year-by-year who have little understanding of what a novel or a painting actually is. Culture is merely the byproduct of an oppressive system that keeps down the poor little minorities.

End Game

University Study Room

None of this would have happened if the academies stuck to their core principles, those which were laid out by the ancient Greek philosophers. Secondly, the downgrading of admissions for tutors and professors, combined with government interference in tuition fee increases etc, has created a noxious atmosphere, which has given rise to a pampered yet intellectually redundant elite.

The end game of contemporary higher education is clear, to perpetuate a very dangerous deconstructivist ideology, which keeps an elite secure and the rest of the university going population ignorant and deep in debt.

Shakespeare’s gifts to the English language are numerous. From his prose to his plays, the Bard invented a dictionary’s worth of words and phrases, that to this day are still used in common parlance. There is not a day that goes by where we do not use at least one word by the playwright. In essay writing, for example, you would use up to and above 1000, from the simplistic and rudimentary to the specific and technical.

William Shakespeare Portrait

Unlike many other languages, the English language was, during the Elizabethan era, in a continual state of flux. Whereas other major languages like Greek and German were fixed and rooted, English was fluid. Shakespeare was the second man to trigger a state of efflorescence in the language, with the first being the Late Medieval poet Geoffrey Chaucer.

A Love of Words

Shakespeare’s love of languages (he was proficient in seven of the Romance languages, including Italian, French and Latin) is confirmed by the fact his works contain around twenty-seven thousand words, which is more than any other writer. In comparison to other men of letters, such as Homer and Dante, James Davie Butler, author of ‘The Once Used Words in Shakespeare’ explains: “The total vocabulary of Milton’s poetical remains is more nearly seventeen than eighteen thousand (17,377); and that of Homer, including the hymns as well as both Iliad and Odyssey, is scarcely nine thousand. Five thousand eight hundred and sixty words exhaust the vocabulary of Dante’s Divina Comedia.”

Obsequiously: Meaning and Use

Richard III Poster

The word “obsequiously”, meaning to act in an excessively servile manner, appears in Richard III. In Act I Scene III, Lady Anne is mourning over the body of her father-in-law King Henry VI, and the word appears in her impassioned outpouring of grief.

“Set down, set down your honourable load,

If honour may be shrouded in a hearse,   

Whilst I awhile obsequiously lament   

The untimely fall of virtuous Lancaster.  

Poor key-cold figure of a holy king!   

Pale ashes of the house of Lancaster!   

Thou bloodless remnant of that royal blood!   

Be it lawful that I invocate thy ghost,   

To hear the lamentations of Poor Anne,  

Wife to thy Edward, to thy slaughter’d son,

Stabb’d by the selfsame hand that made these wounds!   

Lo, in these windows that let forth thy life,   

I pour the helpless balm of my poor eyes.”

Here, we see the word, used in the first person, is not meant in a derogatory way. Its connotations with cringe-worthy sycophancy would not manifest until several centuries later, in the novel David Copperfield by Charles Dickens, published in 1850. The character Uriah Heep, whose personality was so comically cringing, gave English speakers the perfect literary representation for the word, and from then on would be forever synonymous with this type of spineless behaviour.

Hamlet Poster

In Richard III, we see that “obsequiously”, although at its base, meaning to fawn over someone, is used more to articulate an expression of intense grief and emotional devotion to the other person; however, in Hamlet, despite the word “obsequiously” not being used, its contemporary universally understood meaning is played out.

In a scene between Hamlet and Polonius, Hamlet points to the sky and asks Polonius if the cloud above has the shape of a camel and Polonius agrees. Hamlet then changes his mind and says the cloud looks like a weasel and Polonius agrees. Hamlet once again changes his mind and opines that it looks like a whale and Polonius once more affirms it.

When Meanings Solidify

Old Books

As the English language began to form firm foundations, words such as “obsequiously” so too began to solidify. A word, which in Shakespeare’s time, could be used in several ways to explain something, would become defined by only one meaning and one visual representation in the minds of those who use it.

In Richard III it’s clear Shakespeare was using “obsequiously” as a form of literary decoration, to brocade and make richer Lady Anne’s lamentation. His use of artistic license helped to launch the word and its meaning into the widening ocean of the English language.

Essay Writing The Fundamentals : A Cheat Sheet by The Uni Tutor

In this cheat sheet, you will learn everything from starting an essay all the way to the conclusion and then editing.

We’ve carefully written this document so students can make the most out of it.

How to Write a Biology Essay

Students are usually expected to know how to write a biology essay in biology classes in many universities. Articulate formatting and organisation is required in writing a scientific research paper. For this reason, Academic Sciences, a unique assignment writing service, provides comprehensive “how to guides” to students to help them study about how to write a biology essay.


Once you select an appropriate topic then learning how to write a biology essay becomes very easy and enjoyable. Before you start writing a custom biology essay, you should get ready to research and investigate issues. First and foremost, you should select a topic in which you have genuine interest. Owing to the vastness of the subject, our professional essay writers can help you to come up with a topic based on the subjects you take from Zoology, Genetics and Botany. As get to learn on how to write a biology essay, there are some basic concepts you need to grasp such as formatting, writing the abstract and executing the total structure of the paper accurately.

A formally written biology essay should be in the Times New Roman body, a font size of 11 and a line spacing of 1.5. Many universities require you to use normal page margins in formatting your biology essay. The page number and your surname or university identifier should always be placed on the right upper side of every page. While gaining knowledge on how to write a biology essay, students will note that the title is always in bold and font 14 with the heading at the top of every page. Other details include the student’s full name, school, department and address all written in bold.

Academic Sciences has professionals who are well trained and qualified to coach you on how to write a biology essay. They also teach you how to write the abstract, a section which is largely similar to the summary of the whole essay. It should be clear and concise. The aim of the abstract is to give the reader a general idea of what is discussed in the entire paper. Only a few sentences usually offer some background information on the researched subject. It should briefly describe all the applied experiments, methods and the conclusions drawn from the results.

Writing Your Essay

Academic Sciences provides assistance in essay writing to ensure that as a student, you become highly skilled on how to write a biology essay. The essay should include the introduction, body, conclusion and citations.


The introductory paragraph should set the tempo for the readers. It ensures that readers get to understand what the essay entails. A good introduction paragraph should be developed step by step. It is recommended that students limit their introductory pages to 2 pages at most. When learning how to write a biology essay, this is adequate to provide a detailed overview about the whole subject under study. It should include all necessary information to enable the reader understand results of the whole essay. Of greater significance is to enable the reader the indispensability of the subject. As the learner discovers how to write a biology essay he/she will note the importance of adding results from the previous research and experiments which they have conducted on the topic under study. Final introductory concepts should point out the experimental design, what is being defined with the experiment as well as the original hypothesis.


In this section of the essay, the student is expected to disclose the essay in details. As the student gains skills on how to write a biology essay they ought to precisely discuss the different forms of plant or animal life. Any experiments and dissections performed need to be discussed explicitly in order to assert the theory of life. Such a writing assignment creates a greater impact when it is written in combination with illustrations and diagrams irrespective of whether the student is taking Zoology, Botany or Genetics. For instance, a botany student ought to discuss cell division and all related cell life forms like mitosis and meiosis. A zoology student, on the other student, needs to discuss hereditary factors as well as asexual and sexual reproduction.


A student who has learned how to write a biology essay should be able to sum up all the work done successfully. The Academic Sciences graduate writers will help you to re-emphasise all the important points in order to come up with a powerful conclusion. Like the introduction, the conclusion bit ought to leave a great impact on the audience. In order to produce a near-perfect paper, proofreading and editing are inevitable. A good biology paper should be completely original along with proper referencing and formatting.

A Guide On Harvard Referencing Style

One of the most widely used referencing styles in the world is the Harvard referencing style. Based on an author-date system, Harvard referencing is recommended by many universities throughout the world because it is easy to use, read academic work and also facilitate findings and enlist all bibliographic references.

Harvard referencing can be used in any type of paper including literature reviews term papers, empirical studies, theoretical studies, methodological articles and other forms of academic writing. Harvard referencing style is an easy way of providing evidence and accrediting the sources used in a paper. This avoids suspicions of plagiarism because it gives credibility to the work of the authors involved.

Manner of referencing

There are several sources from which you can cite in an academic paper: journals, books, newspaper articles, internet websites or newspaper articles among others. In order for readers to find out the original material in your paper, Harvard referencing style consists of in-text citations indicating the author and the year of publication, and a detailed bibliography.

In-text citations mention the name of the author and the date of publication in brackets. Rules governing in-text citations include:
• They should exhibit consistency throughout the paper.
• In-text citations are written in round brackets. They are normally found at the end of a sentence, just before the sentence’s concluding punctuation. If there is a citation referring to a particular part of a sentence, it should be inserted at the end of a respective clause. Of importance to note is the fact that if an author’s name is included in a sentence, the citation should appear directly after the respective author’s name.
• When there is more than one author for a specific publication, all their names should appear in brackets in the same order as they appear in their publication and separated by the ampersand “&”. But if their names form part of a sentence, then use “and” to separate the authors’ last two names. For instance: “James and John (2012) indicate that…” or “more research on the same matter (Jacobsen, O’Malley & Kevin, 2008) reveals that…”
• If the author of some work cannot be identified, you should use the terms “Anon.” or “Anonymous” along with the work’s title in italics and the date of publication. However, in such cases, it is better to make efforts to find the name of the author especially when the work is part of the supporting evidence for your study. For instance: “Marketing Strategy (Anon., 2008) provides invaluable evidence for…”


The Harvard referencing style requires a list of sources at the very end of an academic paper where full bibliographic details of every book, website, journal or article are listed. Such a list enables all your readers to locate various pieces of information used in your study with ease. All items mentioned the list of references should be arranged in the alphabetical order of the names of authors. Details about items in the list of references should be mentioned including the year of publication, publisher, authors, website URLs, dates when websites were acceded etc. In this section, we shall expound on all these items. The Harvard referencing style does forbid the use of personal communications like informal emails and letters in the list of references. However, they can be cited in the text where need arises.
The manner of referencing ought to be very precise and adherent to the rules. The author’s name is followed by the year of publication; both details in parentheses at the end of the sentence. An alternative is to mention the author’s name and then putt the year in brackets when referring to some work in a direct manner.

Example one: “… the study heretofore has been proven by many researchers as well. (Jacobsen, 1989)”

Example two: “…not more than 40 percent of all incidences, as Jacobsen (1989) proved after several years of research.”

Another focal point in the Harvard referencing style involves direct quotes. When a student is quoting a fragment text comprising of less than 30 words, the student is allowed to incorporate the fragment in the text in single quotation marks. However, the year of publication and page number should be included in parentheses. When The pages being mentioned should be preceded by “p.” The Harvard referencing style requires users to write “pp.” for all page ranges.

Example: “demonstrate to the client that you are on top of their matter” as Sparksman (2008, p. 41) stated.
In the case of quotes with more than 30 words, the student is required to include a double space of 1.3cm of indent containing fragment text without quotation marks. However, you should introduce it with your own words.

Example: Mark L. Kutner adds weight on this physics aspect: When the time concept becomes suspect, it is important to reinvestigate the concept of length. We also need to think about how to measure the length of any given object. The two positions of the ends are measured and the difference taken. Nonetheless, measurements should be taken simultaneously in order for this procedure to become meaningful. (Kutner 2003, p. 129)

In other cases, an author may quote the work of another author. Harvard referencing style requires the author to acknowledge both primary and secondary sources by providing significant details for both sources in the reference list. For instance, if an Godwin cites work from Jackson, the text should appear as follows:
Jackson (cited in Godwin, 2011) offers compelling evidence concerning the facts enlisted below:


We have enough evidence to back up the aforementioned claim (Jackson, cited in Godwin, 2011).

Book Referencing in the List of Sources
The following rules are imposed by the Harvard referencing style when mentioning details of a book in the list of sources:
• Titles should be written in italics.
• Book information should appear in the following order: year of publication, title of the book, series, edition, editor, volume number (if any) or the number of volume(s), the publisher, place of publication, and the pages.
• Harvard referencing style requires minimal capitalisation: the student should limit capitalisation only to proper nouns as well as the first word of a book title. Subtitles should not capitalised. However, they should be separated from the main title of the book with a colon.
• In case we don’t have an author, the source can be listed with the first significant word in the title or with the editor’s name where available.

Bibliographical details are listed as follows in the Harvard Referencing style:

A Chapter in a book:
Author, X., Author, Y., and Author, Z. Year. Title of the Chapter: Subtitle. In: Editor M and Editor N (eds) Title of the Book. Place: Publisher, 11–22.

Journal articles:
General: Author, X., Author, Y., and Author, Z. Year. Title of the Article: Subtitle. Vol. number (issue): 11–22.

Example of Reference in a Book
Julie Dickson, 2001, Evaluation and Legal Theory. Hart Publishing.

Referencing a Book Chapter:
Frances, S., Ellie, W, Sizer. E. 2011. Nutrition Controversies & Controversies. In: The Proteins and Amino Acids: The Structure of Proteins. Oxford: Elsevier, 190-195.

Referencing a Journal Article
Wright, R., and Slatter, D. 2012. The Whole is Always Smaller than Its Parts’ – A Gigital Test of Gabriel Tardes’ Monads. The British Journal of Sociology, 64(3): 590-615

Different works of the same author and same year
When referencing works done by the same author you need to differentiate the year of publication—which is the main criterion for ordering. In case you are referencing two books done by one author and also published in the same year, Harvard referencing style requires that lower-case letters are used e.g. “x”, “y” or “z” after the year of publication. This should be done both in-text and the list of references.
Smith, X. 2010, The Power of Legal Systems, New York.
Smith, X. 2010a, The Law and Business in the 21st, Dallas.
Smith, X. 2010b, The Contemporary Legal-Business Regime, Austin.

Referencing an Unpublished Thesis
Chris M.N. 2001. Problems Suffered when Focusing on Reflective Activities: Potential Measures for Developing Self-assessment Skills in Learning Languages, Oxford University.

Referencing Newspapers
Neil, C. 2013. Bale of the Century. The Sun, 13 June, p. 7

Below are some abbreviations commonly used in reference lists:
Vols. Volumes
vol. Volume
trans. translator(s)
rev. Revised
suppl. Supplement
ser. Series
p. (pp.) page (pages)
n.d. no date
Edn. Edition
ch. Chapter

Website referencing

Harvard Referencing style recommends inclusion of full URLs when citing websites along with dates on which the author accessed them. Examples include:
– Webpages without an author: Neanderthal Man, 2006. [online] It’s available at: < page=984> [Accessed 6 August 2013].
– Web documents: Department of the Treasury, 2013. Treasury Honors Initiatives That Strengthen Global Communities and Advance American Interests. [online] Available at: <>. [Accessed 6 August 2013].
– Websites: NASDAQ, 2013. Information on Market Prices. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 6 August 2013].

For more information about the Harvard referencing style, check referencing sections from websites like Monash University or Anglia Ruskin University.

A Guide OSCOLA referencing system

The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities or the OSCOLA referencing standard is normally used to cite cases, law reports, legal journals, legislation and any other law-related item or source of specialised literature. It contains a set of strict rules that the student learning to use the OSCOLA referencing standard needs to know. Proper knowledge of such referencing rules is a prerequisite for writing excellent legal papers.

The OSCOLA referencing standard was designed by Oxford University. The Oxford Law Faculty, after wide consultations with the OSCOLA Editorial Advisory Board, revised the system so as to facilitate an accurate citation of legal materials, legislation, case laws and so on and so forth. Currently, many book publishers, law schools and law journals encourage their students to use the OSCOLA standard in the United Kingdom and many other countries worldwide. For more details about this referencing standard, check dedicated sections from several websites including: University of Portsmouth, the University of Salford and University of the West of England.

Main traits

In any academic paper, the student needs to back up their paper by citing the sources for development of their concepts. This can be done within the text or in footnotes. The same applies to all law and law-related papers. Legal writing normally cites legal sources like statuses and cases along with secondary sources including specialised websites, books, policy statements or journal articles. The OSCOLA referencing standard heavily relies on footnotes for citations. To this respect, in-text citations and end notes are not used in papers which use this system. Theses, books and other work, however, may have citations in tables of legislation and cases and legislation or even in lengthy bibliographies.


The OSCOLA referencing standard involves the use of very little or no punctuation totally. Full stops are never used after abbreviations e.g. the student should write AB, not A.B. In a case comprising of two parties, it should be indicated as “versus” also abbreviated as v. There should be no full stop at the end. A comma is used to separate parts of a reference for a book. The comma is usually found between the title of the book and the name of the author. A colon is placed between the title of a publication and the subtitle. For instance; “Human Trafficking: Law and Practice”.

Citing books and book chapters

The OSCOLA referencing standard, like any other referencing standard, has a number of rules for citing books, sections of books and even chapters. If a book has just one author, it is cited as follows: author’s first name or initials, his/her surname, title of the book in italics, the edition, publisher’s name, place and date of publication. The last four items should appear in brackets. After which, the page numbers for the sources are included. For instance:

Patricia Ewick, The Common Place of Law (1st ed. The University of Chicago Press, London 1998) 37

In case of a book with more than one author, the student should use use (ed) or (eds) after the name(s) of the authors e.g.:
Rogers John Marshall (ed), Healy Michael P. (ed), Ronald J. Krotoszynski, Administrative law, (Wolters Kluwer, Law and Business 2008) 85
In case you’ve cited more than one work done by the same author you ought to list all the works in a chronological order. You don’t have to write the name of the author before every title; just mention the name before the first item and then replace it with two dashes just before other titles.
Example: Kim HLA, Law, Civilisation and Morality (CUP 1996)
– -Ethics and Responsibility (OUP 2001)

Citing Parliamentary Debates

The OSCOLA referencing standard requires the writer to mention whether the debate took place in the House of Lord Hansard or House of Commons or House of Lords Hansard (HL and HC, respectively), followed by an abbreviation “Deb” along with the date, number and column number. All printed pages should have two columns and a “W” placed after the number of the column in the case of HC debates, “WA” before the column number in the case of HL debates. “WA” simply means written answer. The online Hansard should be cited in the same version as the printed one.
HL Deb 4 March 2000, vol 407, cols 659-36

Citing EU Treaties and Legislation

When citing EU legislations and treaties, a student is expected to mention the title treaty title, year of publication, series of the Official Journal, the issue and page numbers where those citations are found. For instance: Consolidated Version of the Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community [2010] OJ C 84/3

Citing Law Reports and Cases

In the UK, the most importance source for your law report is usually obtained by providing a neutral citation. This applies to cases written after 2001.The most authoritative source, Official Law Reports, should also be cited. Weekly Law Reports would be the next best and then All England Reports. These three sources are the most preferred citations more especially where you cite a case which exclusively includes a specialist series such as the Family Law Reports.

OSCOLA referencing standard requires all case names to be written in the lower case using italics. The date should also be written in square or round brackets. Round brackets are usually applied for the less important dates like those of reports which use the year by year numbering sequence to label the volumes of publication. On the other hand, square brackets are used where there dates of reports for several volumes that number the same sequence within a particular year.

Eric & Peter BC [2001]5 AC710 (HL)
If the party is named Eric & Peter BC, 1990 is the year of the report, 5 is the volume number, AC is the law report title’s abbreviation and HL is the name of the court.

Judgments passed in the High Court or other courts above it are usually assigned a “neutral citation” with a view to locating cases published on the Internet. These include those which have not been reported in the law report series.
Example: Steve v Duncan & Co [2010] UKSC 36, [2011]2 AC118
Names of the parties involved: Steve v Duncan & Co.
Neutral citation: 36th Supreme Court judgement passed in 2010,
Citation to the source where the case has been reported: [2011]2 AC118.

Journal articles

For journal articles, OSCOLA referencing standard applies under a very different rule: the student should write down the name of the author before the article’s title. However, article titles, unlike those of books, are not written in italics. The Main words in the title should also start with capital letters.

Titles for Law Journal articles are also abbreviated. In this regard, the Cardiff Index of Legal Abbreviations will be of great help to the student as a source for more information. Dates of cited articles should be written with the same rules for citation of Law Reports in practice. The volume number, month or issue number (written in brackets where the issue of the journal starts with page 1) and the article page should be written in that order.

Chris J. Johnson, ‘Business and Politics: How Politics Influences (2004) 75 HLR 850
For all journal articles which are exclusively available online, the full URL and date on which the site has been accessed should be mentioned as well.
C Bovis, ‘Future Directions in Public Service Partnerships in the EU
(2011) 2 (2) KLO<¬_48) > accessed 5 August 2013

The OSCOLA referencing standard usually cites encyclopaedias in much the same manner as citing books. But you should be keen to exclude editors, overseer auditors and publishers. The edition, year, date and number of issue should also be included. It is normally indicated at the foot of the page).
International Encyclopaedia of Comparative Law (1st ed., 1990) vol 3 para 19 IALS Chap 6 April 1990

Newspaper Articles
With regard to newspaper articles the writer ought to mention the name of the author, full title of the article and newspaper title and then parentheses which contain the city, date and pages.


Thomas Peterson, ‘Supreme Court Decision Triggers Outrage among Students’ The Guardian (London 5 Sep 2009) 5
According to the OSCOLA referencing standard, the following rules apply to citation of case notes: where there is no title for an article, mention the name of involved parties in quotes and then add “(case comment)” or “(case note) before citation of the journal.

Citing Websites and Blogs
In citing free websites like government departments as well as professional organisations, you ought to mention the name of the author or corporate author, the title in single inverted commas), type of document ,the full URL and date of access. For instance:
The Associated Press ‘SEC Proxy Access Rule Vacated. Corporate Counsel (FindLaw, 25 December 2012)

OSCOLA referencing standard involves the use of footnotes at the bottom of the page. A running number which is used as an indicator for a footnote usually follows the referenced sentences. When subsequent references to the same book are made, a new footnote should only mention the name of the author, number of original footnote in parentheses and then the new page which you have cited e.g.:

Hans Kelsen puts forth the argument that “a command binds, not because the individual who is commanding has the actual superiority in power, but because he/she is empowered or authorised to issue commands or decrees of a binding nature.” (1). He further says that the “binding force of a command or decree isn’t derived from the command itself rather the conditions under which that condition has been issued.” (2)

1 H Kelsen, General Theory of Law and State (The Lawbook Exchange, New Jersey, 2007) 32
2 Kelsen (n 1) 33

Modern Language Association style standards

The Modern Language Association style is used to write papers in the field of liberal arts and humanities. Also abbreviated as MLA formatting style, it is used by many universities throughout the world. In this article, we shall look at the general format and outline of MLA research papers along with information concerning in-text citations, footnotes and other characteristics of MLA formatting style. All information is presented according to the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition and
the MLA Handbook for Writers on Research Papers, 7th edition.

The MLA General Format

The MLA formatting style provides some general guidelines with regard to the format of manuscripts along, correct usage of the English language and a system of referencing using parenthetical citations and works cited in essays. Proper usage of MLA formatting style totally assures the author of credibility by protecting them against any accusations of plagiarism. Nonetheless, some things are more important in determining an author’s credibility than just providing accountability for the source of information.

Formatting guidelines for the MLA formatting style include:
• Print your academic work on a standard paper measuring(8.5 11 inches)
• Double-space the text with legible font (Usually, Times New Roman is highly recommended). In case you decide to use other fonts, the regular writing and italics should be easily differentiated. 12 is the recommended font size.
• Only one space should be left after punctuation marks unless the examiner or instructor directs otherwise.
• 1-inch margins should be left on all sides of the document.
• The first line in every paragraph should be indented by exactly half an inch. An easier way is to use the Tab Key rather than pressing the Space Bar up to five times.
• Insert a header with the page numbers on the upper-right corner of the document, half an inch from the top and correctly flushing with the paper’s right margin. But if the examiner insists that you should omit numbering on the first page, follow the instruction. The examiner’s instructions are superior to MLA’s guidelines in such a case.
• Italics should be used to write names of longer works on the paper. Emphasis should also be laid if it’s necessary.
• Endnotes should be included on an unformatted separate page just before the page of Cited Works. After entitling it as “Notes”, format it to have it at the centre of the page.

The First Page
These guidelines are applicable for the MLA formatting style for an essay:
• The title page should not be written unless expressly specified by the instructor.
• The name of the student, name of the instructor, the course and date should be written on the upper-left corner of the first page. The text should be double-spaced.
• Double space the text, add the title and then centre it. Avoid using italics, quotation marks and underlining. Capitalise all them main words in the title (Title Case).
• Italics and quotation marks are used when referring to another author’s works in the title; for instance, Literary Styles in “2013: King of the Jungle”; Theories of interpreting Literature applied in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.
• Double space all the details between the title of the essay and the first paragraph.
• Page headers should be inserted on the upper-right corner with the page number and the writer’s last name in Arabic numerals. It should be set half an inch from the top before flushing it with the right margin. But if the instructor requires you to avoid this feature, do so please.

In-Text Citations

MLA formatting style requires parenthetical references to be set right before the concluding punctuation mark that ends the sentence containing the cited information. Examples:
o If you want to have the author’s name in the text: Jameson has undertaken several experiments which substantiate the theory mentioned above (343-349).
o If you want to include the name of the author in brackets: Several experiments have substantiated this theory (Jameson 343-349).
o If you are citing source volumes, the surname of the author should be written first, before the volume number and colon. Then the page range can be written down: (Lukasz 4: 31-34)
o Online sources should be cited in the same manner. If an online source does not have page numbers, it should be omitted from the parenthetical reference. For instance, this is an online source containing numbered paragraphs: (Goodman, pars. 26-29)

The MLA formatting style’s general guidelines for in-text citations include:
• References are placed in a sentence’s pauses. For example, before a comma, semicolon or period next to relevant material.
• The page number and name of the author from whom information has been extracted should be cited in brackets. Where multiple sources in one reference are being cited, they should be separated by a semicolon.
• Where page numbers are not mentioned, e.g. web pages, they can be omitted from the reference list.
• When noting down corporate authors such as the company or organisation behind the paper, just cite the name. When a name is too long, you may choose to include it in the sentence instead of using brackets e.g. there is evidence of innumerable facts that support this claim (National Research Council 122); The National Population Council has a different view (123).

Indirect Sources

As a general rule, information from secondhand or indirect sources should be avoided. It’s a good practice to add “qtd. in” when quoting or paraphrasing from indirect sources just before mentioning the source, in brackets: Jefferson does not subscribe to this “immoral practice” (qtd. in Jefferson 219). If you are quoting from classic literary works, you should the page number followed by a semicolon and other information for identification of the right sentence or passage: (Wesley 52; pt 3, ch. 2)

List of Cited Works

MLA Formatting Style recommends the use of a list of Cited Works which is included just after doing your paper, for helping your readers to locate the sources you have used for your paper. The list should contain the heading “Cited Works”.
Write the surname first before other names of the author. Where there are multiple editors or authors, it’s only the first author whose surname is written first e.g.: Michael, Daniel, and Chingkim Chengun. If the authors are too many, you can write the surname of the first author and then add “et al”. The titles should be italicized.

Book references should also contain all the details, when using the MLA formatting style, in this order: author’s name, complete book title, edition (where mentioned), place of publication, publisher’s name (shortened), date of publication and the medium of publication. The medium can be an audiotape, film, CD, web, television, radio, email, interview, oil on canvas or digital file. If a software program is mentioned, it should be italicized.

The basic format is: Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Place of Publication: The Publisher, Year when Published. Medium of Publication.
Example: Shakespeare, William. 1597. Heuer Publishing. Print.
For chapters or essays in anthologies and edited books, the details which need the MLA formatting style guidelines include: the chapter or essay, name of the author, title, book title, name of editors or compilers, place of publication, publisher’s name (also shortened), the date of publication, page range and the medium of publication.

Kuratko, Donald. “Initiating Entrepreneurial Ventures.” Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice. 9th edn. Kim Kellogg. Cengage Learning, 2008. 152-175. Print.

Citing Journal Articles, Newspapers and Magazines
When writing references for a periodical article, the following details are essential: author, title of the article, title of the journal newspaper or magazine where the article was published, volume number, date of publication, page range and the medium of publication. Issue numbers should be written as decimals to indicate volume number after the decimal point (for instance, 19.2 is volume 19, issue 2). When citing a newspaper, it is recommended that you specify the edition as the material could vary among different editions.

For a journal article that has been written by two authors: Kevin Jones, Chris Edward. “The nature of man with respect to intelligence, love and desire” Critical and Creative Thinking 202 (Dec 2012): 18-38
Referencing a magazine article:
Kimberly, MN. “Sports Today: ABC Stars prepared to win the Champions League “The People 18 Nov. 2012: 22-24. Print

Citing Websites
Unless the instructor directs, MLA formatting style doesn’t require mentioning of web URLs in citations. But if you choose to include it then you ought to write it after the date of access to the website enclosed in brackets and a period at the end. Where pagination is not continuous or unavailable, you should write the phrase “n. pag.” when you are citing the web source.

Examples of Web Entries:
University of Hertfordshire Library. “Psychology BSc (Hons).” University of Hertfordshire Library, 2013. Web. 7 August 2013 < >.

Articles in Online Periodicals
Kate, Gough. “International Development Planning Review.”, Liverpool University Press 13 Apr. 2013: n. pag. Web 7 Aug 2013.

Example of Encyclopaedia Entry
“Tesla, Nikola.” Encyclopaedia of Technology and Innovation Management Online. Encyclopedia of Technology and Innovation Management, 2010. Web. 7 Aug. 2013.

For more information the MLA formatting style, please visit and

Business Development Dissertation Writing

The success of business development is based upon far more than just a sale. Business development typically demands a multidisciplinary analysis that is the end-outcome of detailed research and study. When you become well-versed in how to write a business development essay, it is then that you will be able to ascertain the methods used to assist business development. For example, some of these strategies involve financial strategies, legal strategies, and marketing strategies.

For your benefit, The Uni Tutor provides students with custom business development papers that are started from scratch by graduates of business, commerce, and finance degrees. Our custom paper writing service is accessible to any student that requires help when they are learning how to write their business development essay. For those that have recently started university, it is imperative that you put in all the necessary elements in your essay. The Uni Tutor’s best essay writing service will show to you that there is not much involved in learning how to write a business development essay. Business development involves the actions of integrating a various number of core practices to increase sales and customer development. Constructing a business involved constantly evaluating and benchmarking its standards using sales, marketing, repeat customer, and customer complaint metrics. In other words, when you are a student you should use various sales, accounting, legal, and risk benchmarks to learn how to adequately write your business development essay. When you are learning how to write a business development essay, your facts and arguments should focus on sectors and industries that are said to be growing in the next few years. If you illustrate the aforementioned facts, you will show to your teacher that you know how to write a business development essay that grasps the attention of the reader.

One of the essential traits of business writing is to applying a factual, rigorous analysis of every metric calculated in the business. Moreover, you should ensure your writing is crisp, concise, and easy to read.

Writing the Essay

Your business development essay is intended to be developed in the same way as an essay: introduction, body, and conclusion. Since you are only learning how to write a business development essay. It is recommended that you write an essay outline. Furthermore, you need to ensure that you have researched proper materials from a range of resources when writing your essay. After you have completed your business development essay, you can contact The Uni Tutor and get your essay marked by an expert business development essay writer.

A business communication degree allows one to start in a range of different careers. For example, one can work in accounting, finance, investment banking or risk management. Hence, refining the skill is essential to obtaining a first class grade. Fundamentally, a business communication paper is intended to illustrate your base-knowledge of the various methods that businesses use to market their products or services. As a result of the broad scope of a business communications degree is moderately developing as the most commonly studied degree. Thus, learning how to write a business communication paper will allow you to get you an A Grade.

When you are writing a business communication paper, you must ensure that you be persuasive in order to gain a top grade. To start a business communication degree, it is needed that you discuss internal or external communications. More specifically, a business communication degree requires you to integrate such business facets as marketing, corporate communication, public relations, and consumer behaviour.

You will later appreciate that while you learn how to write a business communication paper, it ought to be written according to standards of writing, grammar, punctuation, tone, composition, and persuasion. Both internal and external communication refers to actual communication within a business and communication amongst businesses and the public with the intention of marketing a service or product. It is of course an on-going process – that is, one in which the sender (or encoder) or conveys verbal or non-verbal communication.

Your predominant focus as a student in learning how to write a business communication paper is that of developing a positive communication. You should take into account what your target market thinks, since they are the ones reading your paper. In understanding how to write a business communication paper you must ensure that you have a strong position with which to argue your facts. The Uni Tutor offers a perfect service to write your business communication research paper.

Prior to commencing your essay or paper, you must ensure that you write a well-defined essay plan. Your essay plan should include your introduction, a body plan, or conclusion. Your introduction is that your thesis is backed by facts. Ideally, your introduction catches your audience’s attention. Be bold, be daring, and be creative. Too many students focus on solely following mundane, conventional advice. Following conventional advice will get you conventional results.

To illustrate this point, when writing a business communication paper, you must employ introductory and concluding sentences. In addition, when you write your business communication paper, you must learn how to relate your body paragraphs relate to your overall thesis.

You must illustrate when writing your business communication paper that business communication issues play a pivotal role in enhancing the role of a business or corporation. In doing so, you evidently need to be aware, in general, of the nature of the functioning of a business. Moreover, you should note that communication can occur through various different mediums. There exist many students who have hesitation in writing a business communication paper and need to put more time to thinking about the overall structure and thesis of the paper. If your business communication paper follows the advice we put forward above, then you will be bound to receive a top grade.

Writing an Anthropology Essay: A detailed guide to writing a Standard 2:1 or B+ Grade College or University Essay

When it is time for you to pick a subject when writing your anthropology essay, you ought to, at all times, pick a subject area for which you have a strong or at least reasonable knowledge. Knowledge about a particular topic makes the strenuous task of writing an essay far easier than if you did not have any knowledge to begin with. That said, however, it is not beneficial to pick a topic solely based upon your liking of the subject. Instead, you ought to base your decision on what topic to decide upon your actual comprehension of the subject area. You always ought to commence writing your anthropology essay.

Crafting a 1st Class Anthropology essay involves you to understand the question and topic areas underlying assumptions and conclusions. Having a strong understanding of the question gives you the ability to prepare for the essay. It is essential that we at The Uni Tutor bring your attention to the point that education is a life-learning process entailing continual learning. Moreover, it is imperative that students become aware that many trivial, small, and minute details. Don’t fall into the error of examining even the commas in the question. That’s pointless. You want a 1st Class grade.

A Catchy Title!

After comprehending the title, it is essential to place the title in its relevant domain and context. Essay titles are not selected randomly. Your college professors pick them to examine your knowledge of the courses being examined. To examine this point further, it should be clear that the essay titles aims to cover the entire array of the course. Thus, you ought to be able to ascertain the relevant research materials much easier. You should use a variety of research materials to assist you in developing your arguments. By way of example, you ought to ask yourself, when undertaking research, ‘how does this help me’, or ‘does this advance or retract from my argument’. Asking yourself the aforementioned questions will assist you a great deal in writing your essay.

It is usually the case the anthropology essays have a lengthy word limit. Thus, extensive research is required before you commence writing your essay. Remember to stay on track. Many students are prone to research minute details that are not essential in the broader scheme of their essay’s argument. In other words, if you find you research materials quickly, then you can write your essay much quicker. Another tip is to use the suggested reading materials provided in the course outline.

Research, More Research and Reading

Here, at The Uni Tutor we advise our students to starting researching and reading as soon as they receive their essay question. Anthropology questions usually have a great deal of reading to do, given the non-mathematical approach of anthropology. Most important is that fact that you need to prioritise what you are going to read. You should construct a schedule to assist yourself in the best way to do this. Don’t pull an all-nighter when conducting your research. Conducting research is time consuming approach and should be done methodically.

When conducting your research, you should take note of differing opinions and conclusions regarding matters of interpretation. You should bear in mind that your professor is always looking for a well-constructed essay. When you are preparing to write your anthropology essay, you should focus on planning the content and the development of the essays arguments. Some students find using diagrams useful. In doing so, dividing up your essay and research will help you prioritise certain segments of your essay.

Moreover, it is essential that you learn where to put quotes in your essays. Do not simply list quotes. Quotes should have significant meaning in either proving an argument or disproving an opposing view. In doing so, you should remember citation rules and not violate plagiarism rules. So please, remember to construct your anthropology with proper diligence and care. Remember end result when writing your essay.

From mouth to pen

What is required from now is that you write coherently and persuasively. It is indeed difficult to write everything all in one go. Instead, put your efforts in writing separate and distinct sections of your essay. As a result of so-called writer’s block, you should be aware that editing and proofreading become paramount when you learn how to write your anthropology essay. What you will observe is that keeping a good focus on your introduction and body is essential. The conclusion should allow the reader to capture the entire gist of the paper.
In other words, when your write your anthropology essay you should note the underlying theme or message of the essay. This underlying theme should be evident throughout the entirety of your anthropology essay.