3D printed biosensor for food safety point of care: state of art and potentiality for a trough-out food pathogen detection
While conventional techniques such as mass spectrometry have traditionally been utilized for the detection of food safety management, they have been inefficient for point of care application due to high costs, time-consumption and lots of labor needed. The inefficiencies associated with the customary detection techniques can be addressed through 3D printed biosensor which represents a latest technology for food safety Point of Care. Food safety issues are of significant importance in food manufacture and transportation to different regions domestically and internationally. Pathogens that cause food contamination include viruses, bacteria, and chemicals such as adulterants, metals, and pesticides which can lead to severe and wide-spread financial losses and life afflictions.
Health complications, organ damage, and diseases including cancer represent some of the damages of caused by food hazards to the human body and may range from severe to lingering time periods. Food-induced health risks can lead to outbreaks locally or spread out in both developing and developed economies which makes these risks highly unpredictable. Therefore, an understanding of foodborne pathogens to appropriately handle and prepare food represents a vital factor to ensure food quality and the conservation of societal well-being. Comprehending the dynamics around foodborne pathogens presents a specific significance in the food value chain activities like manufacture, packaging and distribution. This review highlights the 3D printed biosensor for proper monitoring and pathogen detection systems, and their application and development to match modern technology, with the main aim to ensure food quality and safety. We also explore the latest trends in integrated printed microfluidics for healthcare, especially POC diagnostics, and food safety applications.
There are many crucial food safety issues but the most essential are those presented by foodborne pathogenic bacteria and virus. There are many diagnostics methods that are developed but they are time consume and not particularly effective for the food varieties currently being developed. As this problem keeps advancing, experts have been developing some point-of-need diagnostic 3D printed biosensors that make use advanced technologies such as microfluids and nanomaterials. These biosensors are highly sensitive and specific making the pathogen detection process swift and reducing the costs involved. These 3D printed biosensors are analytical devices that are able to quickly and directly detect pathogens and toxins from the food substance even without pretreatment procedures.
A biosensor is a device that converts a chemical, biological, and biochemical response to an input signal detected by a bio receptor and converted and amplified by a transducer to a recognizable and measurable output signal with the essential waveform features. This process is made possible by the inbuilt 3D printed physical or chemical transducers and biological detection materials. The output signal will be displayed, stored, and analyzed to generate useful diagnostic information. Experts are regularly coming up with various types of 3D printed biosensors to improve the speed and efficiency of the food pathogen detection process. The advancement to 3D printed biosensors presents researchers with ample study scopes on the potentiality for direct food pathogen detection.
The efforts towards food safety improvement signifies a multidimensional problem and greatly depends on the recognition and quarantine of contaminated food substance at any phase of the food supply chain. Fundamentally, an understanding of pathogen-food interaction and pathogen life-cycle is needed to enhance the detection and quarantine of the pathogens in food materials. 3D biosensing technologies represent new emergent technologies that facilitate easy detection of pathogen in food substance to enhance food safety. According to various researchers, these emergent technologies enhance the potentiality for direct detection of pathogens in food stuff eliminating the conventional pre-treatment procedures.
There has been an international wake on issues relating to food safety since they have great effect on wellbeing of individuals and their lives. Human safety has to be considered by detecting foodborne pathogens which may contaminate food and its products making it unsafe for consumption. Most of the food pathogens are introduced into the food from the environment and can easily go undetected if critical detection measures are not put in place. The most predominant food pathogens are the bacterial pathogens but in the recent past the foodborne viruses are gaining attention (16,17). There has been several small-scale outbreaks and events of foodborne viral contamination across the world making it a field that requires utmost scrutiny to avoid spreading. Such problems in the field have led advancement in the methods applied in the pathogen detection. It is for such reasons that experts are developing new 3D printed biosensors that can detect the advanced and relatively new pathogens and provide results in real time.
In the recent years, the world has been faced by so many food safety issues that required advanced detection of foodborne pathogens. Most of the cases of fresh produce foodborne diseases have been witnessed in European and North American countries. In the United States alone, there has been cases of two major pathogens namely; Salmonella which caused 18% of the diseases and Norovirus which caused 59% of foodborne diseases. The two have also been the most dominant pathogens in European countries with Salmonella taking 20% and its counterpart taking 53%. In Canada, it is a different case since Salmonella is the dominant pathogen covering 50% of the diseases. Instead of Norovirus, Canada has Hepatitis A virus as the second pathogen although it is only responsible for 0.1%.
The reason for these outcomes may be because the major fresh produce pathogens in Canada are bacterial, and can be detected through the old detection methods. The viral pathogens in Canada include the Porcine Enteric Calicivirus and Hepatitis E Virus, but they are all farm-level pathogens. They are predominantly present in finisher pigs and therefore infect humans through exposure to pork. Studies on the 3D biosensors express optimism on the potentiality for direct pathogen detection due to advancements in sensor technology. Therefore, this study provides insight on the various quick food pathogen detection methods enabled by use of 3D printed biosensors. These advanced 3D printed biosensors reduce the cost, analysis time and do not require many specialized personnel, unlike the previously used systems which applied molecular, immunological, and cultural pathogen detection methods 23.
While POC devices have been extensively studied, several challenges remain to be addressed before their translation into practical applications. To address these formidable challenges, ongoing efforts have been devoted to achieve sensitivity improvement, quantification, multiplexing and multi-functionality in POC food safety assessment. For instance, signal amplification techniques were integrated into paper- and chip-based devices to enhance their analytical sensitivity such as silver enhancement technique and dual labeling technique. Some devices were coupled with smartphone-based readers to achieve the quantitative detection of foodborne pathogens and chemicals without pretreatment procedures. In addition, fabricating POC devices with the ability to perform multiplexed detection has also attracted considerable scientific interest, which could significantly reduce assay time and cost, thereby increasing assay productivity 6. More recently, numerous groups have developed integrated 3D biosensor devices that incorporate multiple key processing steps into a single device prior to target detection. The advent of these technologies has remarkably enhanced the functionality of POC device to achieve more effective food safety analysis and quality control
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