A cell is the primary form of life in humans and other living organisms. Human and animals’ bodies are made up of millions of cells that make up different parts of the body. The major types of cells that exist on earth are the eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. They have similarities and differences in their functions and structure. Prokaryotes refer to the single-celled organisms like bacteria and Archaea, which are usually unicellular. On the other hand, eukaryotes are unicellular or multi-cellular organisms which include fungi, plants and animals. The essay will categorize the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The primary difference between the prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presence of membrane-bound organelles like nucleus and mitochondria. Prokaryotes lack a true nucleus, nuclear membrane and nucleoli (7). Their organelles are suspended on cytoplasm, including their DNA and other genetic materials (1). They also lack separate compartments but have microcompartments that act as primitive organelles which are made by protein cells. Eukaryotes, on the other hand, have a true nucleus, and nucleoli which store their genetic materials. The nucleus is enclosed by two nuclear membranes known as nuclear envelope (2). The nuclear membrane forms the endoplasmic reticulum, which is responsible for maturation and transportation of protein.
Second, eukaryotes and prokaryotes differ in the storage of their genetic materials and information. The genetic information of prokaryotes is found in the highly organized and stable loop of DNA containing chromosomes (2). The chromosomes are stored in the nucleoid. On the other hand, the DNA of the eukaryotes is present in organized chromosomes which are usually tightly bound and found in the cytoplasm (3). However, some eukaryotes have satellite DNA structures known as plasmids, but this is generally regarded as a prokaryote feature.
Moreover, the other difference between the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes is the size of the cells. Eukaryote cells are typically larger than Prokaryote cells because they contain more organelles and perform complex tasks (4). Ideally, the size of the eukaryote cell ranges from 10 to 100 um in diameter, and includes plant, fungal and animal cells (5). Conversely, the cell size of a prokaryote cell is usually 0.2 to 2 um in diameter and come in many shapes, including spiral-shaped, comma-shaped and rod-shaped (6). Prokaryotes cells examples include bacteria and archaea.
To sum up, it is evident from the essay that there are significant differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. These are the two major cell types that make up all living organisms. Prokaryotes refer to the single-celled organisms like bacteria and Archaea while eukaryotes are unicellular or multi-cellular organisms and include fungi, plants and animals. The significant differences between the two types of cells are the presence or lack of membrane-bound organelles, storage of genetic materials and size of the cells. It is crucial to know the differences between the two cells in order to understand where they can be effectively applied.