ROS integration for the Myrtle mobile robot
Table of Contents
3.0 literature review (mobile robotics)
4.0 Project plan
5.0 Risk assessment
In this report, I’m presenting a different way of engaging the Ros environment. I got a robot that I used in my first year for Eurobot competition. Then I will use Arduino to code the wheels and sensors to run using ASIP to communicate with ROS. In the report, I will talk about the problem engineers are have with modifying robot and introduce the robot I’m going to use and why also give a outline of ROS and ASIP.
A literature review, covering mobile robotics in general is also included.
A part by part planning of my project is constructed to meet the targets I’m using a Gantt chart that gives me it and a risk assessment was be carried out to avoid and escape from a potential risk or hazards that could happen during the progress of my project
mobile robotics is advancing quick and are being used more and more in the past year’s mobile robotics can be used in a wide range of industrials and everyday application like “automatic cleaning, agriculture, support to medical services, hazard environments, space exploration, military, intelligent transportation, social robotics, and entertainment”. Tool and equipment and components that need to be integrate mainly need an integration tools to implement changes and engineers feel like they need the help of a software that does it for you, but roboticists still end up spending a huge amount of money by wasting time on the hardware setup like some task like “reinventing the wheel”. Mobile robotics is growing. how you know? Different mobile robotics platform is setting a whole department for research focusing on applications, search and rescue and human interaction.
Before I was focusing on the research of large and medium systems. Yet still the whole aim has been set to sensor reduction and making robots more powerful than another and integration of micro-controllers in the year’s past but the important thing is to have some smaller and lower expense robots. Low expense platforms are an advantage which lets companies have more affordable experimentation and more robots that why the Mirto is an ideal robot to use for educational reasons. Alongside the these points the Mirto robot is made by Engineering and Mathematics Department, MIRTO (Middlesex Robotic platform) is an open-source platform and you can get the codes from online and the robot is update to the 2017 version .
Mirto is combined by two parts:
- There two HUB-ee wheels , that’s constructed of built in motors and encoders (to calculate the rotation), Front and rear castors, attached under six infra-red sensors, a rechargeable battery pack, two bump sensors and an Arduino micro-controller board that connect all of these to a interface.
- The Mirto is has a top layer consists of Raspberry Pi, which is running a Linux image extending the standard Raspbian image, with racket 6.1 installed that is connected to the serial port from the Arduino board.
Why I choice Mirto? Is because it has Arduino based mobile platform which I felt is an easy-to-learn programming language that include numerous complex programming function into simple commands which is simpler and easer for student to learn. As well as those points the Arduino is a straightforwardness programming language that you can modify and improve projects including that is open source that means there no cost for the software that’s why is the most used micro-controller when it comes to teaching. 
ROS is an open source robot operating system that can do what its programmed to do. In my project, I’m integrating the myrtle robot to ROS giving you to do serval different system services like low-level components control, hardware control, message communication between processes, operating on commonly used tasks and package management from a micro-controller. ROS uses nodes to do its tasks which will consist of receive messages, control design, complex sensors, state, actuator and other messages I will use the node for my robot built using multiples interacting components including sensors for range parameter and actuators such as servo motor for the wheels. I will also use a virtual system where its displays a 3d visualization of the robot simulating.
In place of using dedicated operation systems in this project the objective is to use actuators and sensors on micro-controller as services and to let the high-level software applications to be able to use them on robots without software modification. Therefore, my aim in this project is to accomplish a Arduino micro-controller using ASIP (Arduino service interface protocol). ASIP is a protocol that is making a connection between the computer and micro-controller normally Arduino. ASIP is a protocol that is like Firmata it lets you to configure, discover and read and write the micro-controller from a computer generally the IO pins. And the protocol can easily read many different sensors and write actuators that is supported by high level abstractions. Those points mean the definite hardware can be enable to different micro-controllers to be controlled and without software modification. ASIP is usually connect to the serial connection to modify but it isn’t the only link to stream interface other like Ethernet and Wi-Fi can be used.
3.0 literature review
The mobile robotic mainly entails the application of robots to serve various issues in the industry. The culture is gaining popularity in most parts of the world, where industries are using robots to move heavy loads as well as carrying out other heavy tasks that could cost workforce a great length of time. Therefore, there are issues that take place in the entire process of application of robots in industry. The process of highlighting the issues has taken place in the introduction, though more details exist in the introduction. On the same note, research about the application of robots has also gained momentum, with researchers working hard to devise ways of making it easier and less demanding to run industrial systems using robots. Much focus has been on the services in warehouses, where loading and offloading services are most of the services that require energy and determination. Therefore, much of the information about all the mentioned processes will be clear in the next sections of the paper.
Keywords: mobile robotic, spying robot, human-robot interaction, AVGs, localization, navigation, advanced technology
From the definition, a mobile robotic is a device that operates on an automatic system, and its capable of moving from one point to another. One good example of a mobile robotic is a spying robot. The robots can move around (Barbon, Margolis, Palumbo, Raimondi, & Weldin 2016, p. 136). They operate within a confined region, and it is tricky to send a robot out to the world. As already mentioned, they have a working system, which enables them to move round. They have wheels to enable them to move around a small area. However, they also apply tracks in executing their motion.
However, for someone making a bigger robot, the legs are the most suitable means of locomotion because they are easily adaptable. It is also one of the techniques for teaching people to understand locomotion because most researchers use robots to understand the topic further. They attach the various concepts to the motion of a legged robot, and they use such systems to back their knowledge on certain locomotion principles.
In the contemporary world in which technology is advancing at a greater rate, people adopted a means of using robots to serve various purposes. For example, even the toys that they buy for their children are robots because some of them are powered, and they can move around without being a touch or push by anyone.
The following paper will focus on the mobile robotic, and their relationship to human life through their interaction with human beings. The other issues relating to mobile robotics that appear in the essay include the navigation and localization in the application of robots, planning, coordination, evaluation of performance, standards of industrial mobile robots, as well as the applications of robots and AGVs. However, the paper is a literature review, and it will focus more on how the various articles handle the topic.
Based on the findings in (Barbon, Margolis, Palumbo, Raimondi, & Weldin 2016, p. 2), there exist various forms of interaction between human beings and the robots. The forms of interaction are beside autonomy. There are various scenarios whereby robots serve the functions that human beings can perform. Robots get involved in human activities in many occasions.
A good example is an intelligent robot that is capable of escorting a person. They are both indoor and outdoor environment, with the ability to trace the path of a person, and can manipulate information relating to the directions. The most important in this case is the position of the person. According to (Barbon, Margolis, Palumbo, Raimondi, & Weldin 2016, p. 2), for a mobile robot programmed in a way that it can trace a person’s position, it is possible for them to interact just like two human beings.
On the same note (Bordoni, & Raimondi et al. 2015, p. 52) suggest that, in the human-robot interaction, the most important aspects to consider is the autonomy of the robot because it is the same factor that determines the levels of interaction between robots. They posit that autonomy is the main factor that limits human-robot interaction. As a result, once its determination materializes, it will be possible to assess the levels of interaction between the robots and human beings.
However, the authors further explain that industrial robots have not any form for of interaction with human beings due to the programs fed into their operating system (Bordoni, & Raimondi et al. 2015, p. 52). Most of the robots contain programmed commands to serve specific industrial tasks that the humans cannot perform.
Additionally, interaction also depends on the interfaces for direct interaction and indirect interaction. The indirect interaction involves a situation in which a human being operates a robot as the authors suggest (Bordoni, & Raimondi et al. 2015, p. 54). The flow of information is what determines the scope of interaction, and further classifies the interactions into either direct or indirect.
Robotic navigation incorporates various tools such as the artificial intelligence for robots as suggested by (Barbon, Margolis, Palumbo, Raimondi, & Weldin, 2016, p. 130). There are various types of robot navigation categorized as follows.
|Environmental representation||Sensor-based navigation|
|Two-dimensional & three-dimensional|
In the unstructured environment, there is an application of the gripping technology while using the robots as a mobile manipulator, and it employs the different parts of the geometries, in combination with the hardware components to assess the position and locality, as well as the purpose served by the particular type of robot.
The authors further posit that robot navigation has three major components, which include the mapping process. The process entails the memorization of the data acquired by the robot while undergoing an exploration process for a given period in a suitable representation (Barbon et al.2016, p. 134). Secondly, the robot has a localization phenomenon that derives the current position within the map. The position is just where the robot exists in the map. The location of a robot is very important because it enables the researchers to get the specific location characteristics of the robot while analyzing locomotion principles.
Additionally, according to Barbon et al. (2016), the third category is the navigation process. Based on the literature, the authors have brought out the navigation concept in a clear and precise manner, such that one can trace its meaning and its application in the analysis of mobile robotic (Barbon et al. 2016, p. 130). Most specifically, navigation involves a process of choosing the action for the robot to attain a certain goal, based on its current position.
There are two broad categories of navigation, and they include the indoor navigation and outdoor navigation. The indoor environment types of robots entail the autonomous robots that acquire and maintain the models within a localized environment. The indoor environment robots are classifiable into structured environments. However, the outdoor robots further consists of the partially structured environments and the unstructured environment
Additionally, localization is the basic principle to navigation. Localization majorly depends on the position of a robot in a given map. It depends on certain landmarks that define its position and direction in an environment that are famous as suggested by Barbon et al. (2016). Localization is a problem that is crucial in Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMR). Therefore, it is evident based on the literature that navigation and localization for mobile robotic go hand in hand, and the explanation of one will entail an inclusion of the other in the explanation.
Planning and Coordination
According to Quigley et al. (2009) the planning and coordination of robotic movement, it is evident that the systems that are controllable through the internet can accomplish a high level of the motion planning for the respective robots. According to Quigley et al. (2009), the traditional way of assessing the low-level motion for robots entails a lower level controller system.
They went ahead to determine that one of the applications of planning in robots is mainly designing a protocol that enables the robot to avoid obstacles. In particular, this technique is achievable through the application of the sliding mode controller with a potential locality as well as the obstacle exclusion zones depending on the electrical charge models (Quigley et al. 2009, p. 3).
If many robots are moving, there is the need for the coordination of the motion. Some of the factors that determine the coordination mechanisms entail the infrastructure. One has to consider the path to be followed by each robot while moving from the start to the end point, ensuring that there is no interference of the motion by the other robots or any other obstacle is an issue recognized by Boender, Currie, Loomes, Primiero, and Raimondi (2016).
The authors Quigley et al. (2009) claim that, through the application of the various algorithms, it is possible to solve the trajectory queries existent between the endpoints of a given infrastructure. Therefore, the motion is achieved in a calculated manner, which defines the scope as well as the trajectory in the map for every robot, and that prevents the interference between them.
The most appropriate method to apply is a decentralized algorithm that is applicable for the trajectory of more than one robots. On that note, each robot can perform the trajectory planning locally as well as a parallel planning achieved by many robots (Quigley et al. 2009). Therefore, it is evident that coordination and planning mechanisms as well as the problems associated with such mechanisms involve the determination of the trajectory problems and determining their solutions before any action materializes concerning the robot.
Robot operating system is a software framework resulting from the efficient software packages developed, and connected by researchers, hobbyists as well as professionals interested in mobile robotics (Quigley et al. 2009, p. 5). The system integrates the various tasks converged in it by the users of the robot. Certain programs are fed into the system to define the scope of operation of the robot and specify the tasks it is meant to perform in industry. Additionally, the operating system is controllable through remote sensing, making the robot controllable at some distance. The operating system enables the robot to achieve different tasks, because based on the program fed into the system; the robot will be able to operate automatically according to the guidelines stipulated in the program (Quigley et al. 2009, p. 5). The most applicable programming languages in industrial robots are the ‘basic and pascal’ languages. It stands for Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
In the wake of the advancement in technology that also marked the introduction of robots into human life, various mechanisms apply to the determination of the evaluation process for the performance of robots as captured by Araújo, Portugal, Couceiro, & Rocha (2013). On the same note, the National Institute of Standards and Technology started a program that defines the quantitative metrics for the artificial intelligence of machines. One of the proposed approaches is the task-based performance testing or evaluation process.
According to Araújo et al. (2013), the process involves an envisioning of the application-specific test-beds. The evaluation process as advised by the organization focuses on the urban search and the rescue tasks. The robot has to serve the tasks like the mapping of the environment, finding the simulated victims, and have an organized procedure for reporting findings.
The authors went ahead to explain that, the evaluation processes take place during the testing exercises (Araújo et al. 2013, p. 4). In addition, the process involves the designation and development of a testing set-up for application of the metrics to initiate the performance evaluation process. The materials applied in the evaluation process can challenge the specific capabilities of the robot in the ways that are recurrent to facilitate the process of comparing different models. It will also enable the comparison of specific configurations in the event of assessing similar robot models
The authors proposed the development of a protocol for the evaluation of the robot performance, generated based on the apparatus for application and the procedure for the exercising of the metrics for the measurement of performance. Therefore, it is evident that the performance evaluation process depends on the metrics of the process.
In the performance evaluation process, the collective test evaluation process offers a comprehensive perspective to assess the capability of motion of the robot based on the environment, an objective that is not possible with the individual test methods (Araújo, Portugal, Couceiro, & Rocha 2013, p. 4). Lastly, performance evaluation process applies the metrics for the determination of the performance of the robot. As a result, this will be able to generate a report based on the metrics used.
Standards for Industrial Mobile Robots
There are various safety standards stipulated to govern the manufacturing, operation, and handling of robots. Robots can be quite dangerous to human life and property. Therefore, various organizations have come up with a protocol to define the safety standards to govern the operation of the interaction of human beings with robots.
According to Boender, Currie, Loomes, Primiero, & Raimondi (2016, p. 18), the robotics industry is subject to the regulations defined by the European directives that relate to product safety. Some of the European safety precautions include the EMC-Directive (2004/108/EG), the low voltage Directive (2006/95/EG), and the Machinery Directive (2006/42/EG). The directives mentioned above guide the application process for robots, to ensure that they cannot place human life in danger.
The authors have followed the regulations of the American National Standards Institute B56.6 for the AGVs keenly and proved that it defines the safety requirements for the elements employed in the design and operations as well as the maintenance of powered machines (Boender et al. 2016, p. 20). The standards apply to the non-mechanically restrained, automatic industrial machine-like robots, vehicles and other machinery.
In addition, there was a standard commissioned and passed by the ASTM committee in 2014 that recommends and evaluates the procedures for testing, specifying as well as determining the scope of operations of the driverless industrial robots. Therefore, it is evident that the organization focuses mainly on the safety in the operation of the robot.
Finally, the ISO 13482  is a safety standard that crosses over to personal care robots. It offers an opportunity and guidelines for one to mitigate any rising risks in the event of the operations of the robots. The safety of an individual is the focus of these standards, and everyone has a responsibility of ensuring that the robots are in a good position regarding safety, for operation and application in achieving some tasks that may seem unachievable through a human hand.
There are various applications of the robots spurred by the ever-advancing technology and the need for automation in industry. Most industries have emulated a culture of employing robots to do the work because they are fast and cannot grow tired while working. There is a development of most mobile robots to serve in most industrial settings.
Firstly, the robots serve to optimize the locations of items in warehouses. It is a suggestion of Boender, Currie, Loomes, Primiero, & Raimondi (2016, p. 18) in which posit that the application of robots in locating items on the shelves in the warehouse is a technique that is achievable using robots. Therefore, there is no need for a company to hire many workers because the mobile industrial robots are in a good position to serve the purpose without regular payment for the services.
The article further discusses that the robots with legs are the most commonly applied in industry because they have the ability to climb onto obstacles as well as reducing the height to pass under lowly hanging objects (Boender et al. 2016, p. 18). Therefore, it is evident that robots have turned out to be the most applicable objects to replace the workforce in most industries, and what remains is a modification of the robots to serve the various purposes.
Moreover, Quigley et al. (2009) describe a traditional robot with an onboard manipulator, and four legs, as well as the devices for clamping objects, the legs, enable it to climb onto obstacles.Their design is in such a way that they allow the robot to modify its height, to serve the different positions. The authors further posit that the robots have served the industry since their realization. Moreover, as technology continued to advance, there was development of various other designs of robots that serve the functions better (Quigley et al. 2009, p. 5).
It is evident that the mobile robotic is a field that covers a wide scope. From the definition of a robot, one can generate a whole list of examples of robots, ranging from the cars on the roads to the gadgets applied in industry as mentioned in the paper. Therefore, the robotic industry is beyond the scope of this paper.
Based on the review of the articles, it is evident that technology continues to make it necessary to employ robots in the industry because they can work relentlessly and without fatigue. It is also evident as mentioned above that robots interact with human beings in various ways, and the paper was just highlighting a few ways realized and proved by researchers.
Concerning the coordination and planning, the procedures are specific to every robot, the determination of the trajectories, and how the robot avoids the obstacle are obtainable using algorithms. The same technique is associated with the evaluation process whereby the application of the metrics in the determination of the performance of a robot is the focus. Therefore, it is possible to determine the performance of a robot, by assessing its metrics and its capability in sticking to a specific trajectory.
The paper has also been able to gather views from different researchers about the navigation and localization aspects of mobile robotic. The navigation process proved to entail a combination of the mapping while the localization focuses on direction and concentration to a given region. However, there is a combination of both functions in to achieve the motion of the robot within the locality.
Additionally, there are certain standards deemed applicable in safeguarding the safety status of the people in the environment o robots. The proposal of the standards involves a combination of ideas from different regulatory bodies that govern the search for safety while dealing in machinery. Therefore, the manufacture, design, and operations, as well as the maintenance of the robots, must follow the requirements of the regulatory agencies, which is mainly adherence to the set standards.
Finally, the applications and AGVs section has covered some of the applications of robots in industry. It is evident based on the section that there is a perpetual replacement of humans in industries as the robots can serve most functions for long. Therefore, in the industry, there is a need for increased production rates, and it makes it necessary to apply robots to increase efficiency.
In conclusion, the research has shown that the use of robots in the industry is gaining popularity and they are in application in most industrial segments. As a result, the researchers should focus on how to improve performance through the available performance evaluation techniques for an increased production rate in the industry. With the increasing rate of technological advancement, there is the development of industrial systems to accommodate the application of robots, because they tend to make the work easier and saves much of the production time.
4.0 Project plan
The whole aim is to interface the Myrtle with ros. To interface the Myrtle with ros and control the robot theirs is some math’s involved where I must convert between the robot’s native representation of commands and data and the cmd_vel/ ROS interface which will support it.
To control the motor speed, theirs two parts to it; one I must find the cmd_vel velocity command and two PWM (post with modulation and find the relation between them two:
1- Circumference of wheel which is (Pi*Diameter of the wheel) =?
2- The relation between PWM and velocity is generated using this formula:
(PWM= velocity * 60000 / (170/255) *circumference of the wheel)
170: wheel max RPM,
255 max PWM value
from this I get the encoder feedback/time which give me velocity that comes from the motors and make PWM signal that lets you control the motor speeds.
I’m going to use ASIP to drive the motors using a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller
For me to use the robot on ROS I must write a model of the robot’s kinematics. From that I will get a URDF file which ROS uses to describe their robots model as well-known as unified robot description format.
5.0 Risk assessment
|MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DESIGN ENGINEERING AND MATHMATICS
|Department/School||Science & Technology, Design Engineering and Mathematics|
|Project||ROS integration for the Myrtle mobile robot|
|Location/s||Middlesex University London|
|Date or period this Risk Assessment covers||8th February 2017 and 10th February 2017|
|Persons Involved||Programme leader – Vaibhav Gandhi
Technical Tutor/supervisor- Nick Weldin
Student – Abdinuur Mahamed
|Principal Location address
and Contact No.
|Middlesex University Hendon Campus
+44 (0) 20 8411 5555
|HAZARD – Pre-vetted Contractors – attach specific assessment||HAZARD||HAZARD|
|Aircraft / “special” flying *||Access/egress||Machinery|
|Armourers *||Animals||Manual handling (attach specific assessment)|
|Diving Operations *||Communication Failure||Noise (attach specific assessment)|
|Explosives/Pyrotechnics/ Fire effects *||Compressed gas/cryogenics||Person with special needs|
|Flying Ballet *||Confined spaces||Physical exertion|
|Hydraulic Hoists (Cherry Pickers) *||Derelict Buildings/dangerous structures||Radiation ionising/non ionising|
|Lasers *||Electricity or gas||Speed|
|Location Catering||Fire/Flammable material||Tropical Diseases (e.g. Malaria – attach details of medical arrangements e.g. prophylactics, local hospitals and evacuation plan)|
|Location Lighting Services *||Fight sequence||Vehicles/off road driving|
|Hire of Lighting Equipment||Glass||Violence/ Public disorder|
|Scaffolds *||Hazardous substances/ chemicals/ drugs micro-organisms (attach specific -assessment )||Water|
|Smoke Effects *||Heat/cold||Weather|
|Stunts *||Hostile Environment: (attach confirmation of clearances from Senior Management)||Working patterns/working hours|
|Physical Effects||Inexperienced performer or children
N.B. for children, risk assessment must be provided to parents or guardian.
|Working at heights|
|Lifting appliances/ machinery||Other|
List experts used, including pre-vetted contractors. Each pre-vetted contractor should be required to provide the significant findings of their risk assessment in writing. This information should then be included in, or appended to this form and reviewed with other activities and arrangements to check effective co-ordination.
· All staff has had health and safety training. Middlesex University experts will on hand for anything relating to the boat including its assembly, disassembly and safety throughout the testing.
· Neil Melton is a Health and Safety consultant for the University with 27 years experience in this field.
· Neil Melton is a nationally registered Health and Safety consultant and accredited trainer
|Details of Activity
Briefly Describe what is intended. For clarity, this may include sketches/story board/diagrams/checklists
A final-year student (Abdinuur Mahamed) has developed a system where he will use MIRTO (Middlesex Robotic platform) to integrated it with ROS to complete tasks using ASIP protocol. The MIRTO consist of electrical components like sensors and actuators and a micro-controller.
The activity is the testing phase of the project, where the system will be mounted on a boat and will be tested in the water.
· A sequence of tests, where various parameters of the control system will be altered and the resulting speed measured.
· Return of the equipment to the Hendon campus.
|Hazards Identified and Risks Arising
Identify and list what could reasonably cause harm. Against each identify who is at risk, i.e. who could be harmed and how. Ignore the trivial, concentrate only on those hazards that could result in serious harm or affect several people.
Electricity or Gas (L)
Manual Handling (L)
Working Pattern (L)
|Risk Assessment and Proposed Precautions
For each of the above, evaluate the risks and decide whether existing precautions are adequate or more needs to be done. Take into account information from contractors, premises management, resource providers, and others about the risks and controls. List the proposed controls for each significant hazard and identify any contingency plans in place for emergencies or failures of safety critical arrangements, e.g. miss fire of explosive effect or stunt; car going off road; member of public being door stepped, turning violent. Include fire and first aid and welfare arrangements.
A briefing before commencement of any activity will be given to all participants. This will include a health and safety briefing from the technical experts as well as a run through of the risk assessment.
Every precaution will be made to make sure these are safely handled and wires are clearly visible to avoid trips and falls.
Lifting the MIRTO can be done by a minimum of one persons
Location 1 – The Ritterman Building Hendon Campus
The electronics of the wireless control are extra low voltage – the maximum draw being 12V and approximately 1 amp.
·Use proper termination devices
·Check that all copper is covered
·Use an insulation transformer
·Wear safety shoes and other PPE
·Use proper size fusing
·All screws should be double checked before electricity is supplied
·Use signs to indicate risk
·Water should be kept away at all times
·Result of harm: Burns
·Short of breath
Location 2 – home
projects exhibition All electrics are housed in enclosure preventing any human contact
Members of the public will not touch any of the parts of the project. Experts from Middlesex University will be on hand to monitor and control
Neil is qualified and experienced First Aider
A first aid kit will be on hand in the unlikely event the operator experiences an injury.
|N.B. THIS MUST BE SIGNED BEFORE THE EVENT CAN GO AHEAD
I have read the above and am satisfied that:
· It constitutes a proper and adequate risk assessment in respect of the programme activity and that the precautions identified above are sufficient to control the risks.
· Adequate arrangements are in place to communicate the risk assessment findings and to co-ordinate the safety arrangements of all those affected, e.g. site owners, engineers, contractors, freelances, resources, etc.
Signature of Head of Department/Project Leader ………………………………………………………Name Vaibhav Gandhi
Date: 7 May 2013
Details of Safety Training received Interactive Other (give details below)
Signature of person conducting this assessment
…………….…………………………………………Name Neil Melton
Date: 7 May 2013
Signature of person with designated responsibility for safety co-ordination
….…………………………………………Name Neil Melton
Date: 7 May 2013
Review Date; Two time event
The MIddlesex Robotic plaTfOrm (MIRTO). Available at https://github.com/fraimondi/myrtle.
Creative Robotics: HUB-ee. Available at http://www.creative-robotics.com/ About-HUBee-Wheels.
]Warren, J.-D., Adams, J., Molle, H.: Arduino robotics. Springer Science and Business Media (2011)
Franco Raimondi : The MIddlesex Robotic plaTfOrm (MIRTO) with asip http://www.rmnd.net/category/software/arduino/
Araújo, A., Portugal, D., Couceiro, M.S. and Rocha, R.P., 2013, April. Integrating Arduino-based educational mobile robots in ROS. In Autonomous Robot Systems (Robotica), 2013 13th International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Barbon, G., Margolis, M., Palumbo, F., Raimondi, F. and Weldin, N., 2016. Taking Arduino to the Internet of Things: the ASIP programming model. Computer Communications, 89, pp.128-140.
Boender, J., Currie, E., Loomes, M., Primiero, G. and Raimondi, F., 2016. Teaching functional patterns through robotic applications. arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.09470.
Bordoni, M., Bottone, M., Fields, B., Gorogiannis, N., Margolis, M., Primiero, G. and Raimondi, F., 2015, May. Towards cyber-physical systems as services: the ASIP protocol. In Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS), 2015 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on (pp. 52-55). IEEE.
Quigley, M., Conley, K., Gerkey, B., Faust, J., Foote, T., Leibs, J., Wheeler, R. and Ng, A.Y., 2009, May. ROS: an open-source Robot Operating System. In ICRA workshop on open source software (Vol. 3, No. 3.2, p. 5).