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  1. The consonants of the English Alphabet which name begins with a vowel are:

R, S, F, H, L, M, X, N

Most of these consonants are produced through a similar manner which starts with an open sound and move towards a closed position. Another feature some of them share is the fact that they begin with the sound /ɛ/. In addition, most of them contract with the alveolar ridge.

  1. The consonants of the English Alphabet which name begins with a consonant are:

Z, T, P, Q, D, G, J, K, C, V, B

Most of these consonants are pronounced with a more closed mouth as opposed to the first consonants which moved from open to closed. In contrary to the first consonants starting with the sound /ɛ/, these consonants start by the sound each one represents.

  1. The previous answers show characteristics of consonants that include: the manner of articulation, place or articulation and the voicing.

 : to dream Mi : The third note on the musical scale
Kū : to stand Ku : var
O: Or, lest, if. ō To answer, reply yes, agree
ʻē : Different, strange, peculiar E: Part. marking imperative/intentive mood
mā- : Short for maka, eye Ma : beside, along
Pī : Stingy, miserly, niggardly Pi: in math. Pai.
  1. The words shown in the table above are minimal Huwaiian words under the CV form while others are just V. while most of them are lexical words with clear meanings, the others which includes the words “O” and “Ku” are functional.

  2. The following is a list of two-letter French words:

on, or, os, ou où, pi, pu, aï, an, as, au, ay, ba, bê, bi, bu, çà ça, ce, ci, da, de dû dû, eh, en, et, eu, ex, fa, fi, go, ha, hé, hi, ho, if, il, in, je, la, li, lu, ma, né, ni, nô, nu, oc, oh, om, on.

Table of French Homphones :

ai est
os eau
ba bat
je jeu
il ils
pu pus
bu but
  1. Minimal word constraint is a phenomenon that is shared through multiple languages. Therefore, similarities arose concerning the characteristics shared between them which consist in most of them being functional or onomatopoeic words.

Minimal words also share similar traits with Homophones which are words that are pronounced the same but written differently, often referred to us “False Friends”. Many languages around the world have Homophones such as French and Spanish.

  1. In English, the following sounds are pronounced /f/ and /v/. However, in Kiowa, they are pronounced /p/ and /p’/. All the mentioned sounds are labials. Meaning, McKenzie’s reassignment of these symbols to new sounds preserves place of articulation.

  2. The same deal happens concerning c and q, which are velar in both languages: /k/ in English, /k, kP/in Kiowa

  3. j, th, ch, x work similarily as they are coronal in both languages: /dz,t, tS, ks/ in English, /t, t P, ts, ts P/ in Kiowa.

  4. McKenzie used r for /ts/, before replacing it with ch. In his own words he states: “r just didn’t quite filled the bill for me”; McKenzie n.d.c). This substitution maintains the correlation between English and Kiowa coronals.

  5. The alphabetical order suggests a grasp of glottalic manner of articulation. In each triplet, the letters occur in the order aspirated, unaspirated, ejective (or aspirated-ejective), that is, within each triplet, the sounds are ordered according to their glottalic properties.

  6. The palatalization is the result of co-articulation of /i/ in the environment of high vowels following a consonant (typically found in inflectional endings), causing this consonant to be pronounced in a position where the tongue is raised in the mouth in order to produce the high vowel. Examples of such occurrences can be seen in words like: coit /kʰɔʰtʲ/ and cèir /kʰʲeːrʲ/.

  7. /e/ palatalizes in absence of a direct palatalising trigger, as in, without a following vowel /i, e/). This sound change has taken place in several Romance languages and dialects included in the following words: beir /perʲ/ and beann/pʲaun/.

  8. The words which are pronounced in a front vowel and contain a palatalized consonant:

eiteag /eʰtʲak/ cèilidh /kʰʲeːli/

faoinsgeul/fɯːnʲʃkʲəɫ/ conaisg /kʰɔnɪʃkʰʲ/

lìnear /lʲiːnʲər/ creidsinn /kʰrʲetʲʃɪnʲ/

peirsill /pʰerʲʃɪlʲ/ cuideam /kʰutʲəm/

caidil /kʰatʲɪl/ tuigsinn /tʰɯkʲʃɪnʲ/

ceileadh /kʰʲeləɣ/ toinisg /tʰɔnʲɪʃkʲ/,

  1. The orthographic rules dominating the vowels in the words above consist in the two vowel rule which states that two vowels together force the first vowel to be long. The latter is present in words such as: àilleach /aːlʲəx/ and lìnear /lʲiːnʲər/. Another rule present in most of the words are vowel diagraphs which refers to the first vowel being long and pronounced, as opposed to the second vowel which is silent. We can witness examples of this in the words: beachdaich/pɛxkiç/ and cuideam /kʰutʲəm/.

How The Order Process Works

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